The effects of accommodations on test performance have been researched, but the findings that emerge from the existing research are inconclusive. These findings provide little guidance to those who must make decisions about which accommodations are suitable for particular kinds of students parti[censored] ting in particular assessments. What is lacking is research that directly examines the effects of accommodations on the validity of inferences to be made from scores. Overall, existing research does not provide definitive evidence about which procedures would produce the most valid estimates of performance. Moreover, it does not establish that scores for students with disabilities and English language learners obtained under accommodated conditions are as valid as scores for other students obtained under unaccommodated conditions.

For the most pan, existing research focuses on comparisons of the scores obtained under standard and accommodated conditions. We conclude that this research design is useful for understanding the effects of accommodations and does provide evidence of differential group performance, but we also conclude that it does not directly address the validity of inferences made from accommodated assessments.

In the committee's judgment, additional types of validity evidence should be collected. Validation studies in which evidence of criterion relatedness is collected have been conducted with the ACT and the SAT; similar studies should be conducted for NAEP and state assessments as well. We acknowledge that identification of appropriate criterion variables is more straightforward in the context of college admissions than in the K-12 context; however, we encourage efforts to identify and obtain reliable data on concurrent measures that can provide evidence of criterion validity for K-12 achievement results, such as grades, teacher ratings, or scores on other assessments of similar constructs. In addition, analyses of test content and test-takers' cognitive processes would provide further insight into the validity of results from accommodated administrations in the K-12 context. We note that NAEP's sponsors have initiated several studies of this kind since our committee began its investigations, and we encourage them to continue in this vein. Specifically, the committee makes the following recommendation:

Recommendation S-1: Research should be conducted that focuses on the validation of inferences based on accommodated assessments of students with disabilities and English language learners. Further research should be guided by a conceptual argument about the way accommodations are intended to function and the inferences the test results are intended to support. This research should include a variety of approaches and types of evidence, such as analyses of test content, test-takers' cognitive processes, and criterionrelated evidence, and other studies deemed appropriate.

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